Annefield
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Soils

Much of the rock and soil at Annefield derives from weathering of the Precambrian rocks that underlie much of the county. Rocks formed during the Precambrian era are between 4.5 billion and 560 million years old. Eons of weathering of these Precambrian rocks have given rise to the Wissahickon schist and gneiss formations, which merge with rocks composed of volcanic material in the area. These complex formations underlie the Georgeville and Herndon loam soil series that is well represented at the farm.

Although the farm’s soil appears consistent on the surface, there are actually four different classifications of soil on the property:

  • Georgeville – The Georgeville series consists of deep, well drained soils that have a red clayey layer in the subsoil. These soils are undulating to hilly and are on uplands. They formed in material weathered from metamorphosed sedimentary rock. These soils are strongly acid or very strongly acid subsoil and are low in natural fertility.
  • Annefield Vineyards: Note the mixture of clay and weathered rock in the Cabernet Sauvignon block.
    Herndon – The Herndon series consists of deep, well drained undulating and rolling soils on uplands. These soils formed in the weathered products of metamorphosed sedimentary and volcanic rocks. These soils have a strongly acid to very strongly acid subsoil and are low in natural fertility.
  • Orange – The Orange series consists of deep, somewhat poorly drained to moderately well drained soils that have a very plastic, clayey layer in the subsoil. These soils are undulating to rolling and are on uplands. They formed in material weathered from greenstone, slate and other fine-grained basic rocks. These soils have a medium acid to neutral subsoil and are low to medium in natural fertility.
  • Appling – The Appling series consists of deep, well drained soils that have a clayey layer in the subsoil. These are undulating to hilly soils on uplands. They formed in the weathered products of acid igneous and metamorphic rocks. Appling soils have a strongly acid to very strongly acid subsoil and are low in natural fertility.